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Definitions

Angle Brake

Some borescopes are equipped with an angle brake which is used to prevent unwanted movement of the bending section once it has been properly positioned. To engage the brake assembly on a barrel or lever type instrument, simply push the barrel or lever forward to the “E” position (engaged; “F” free). To engage the brake on a knob type instrument, pull the knob outward away from the base. The angle of the bending section will remain fixed until the knob is depressed, thus releasing the brake. The angle brake is not a lock. It simply offers resistance to a change in angulation. Therefore, angulation may still be adjusted while the brake is engaged.

Angle Section and Angle Wires

The angle section is responsible for the angulation (bending) of the distal end. There are two types of angle section. The first is a two-way angle section and the second is a four way angle section. The two-way gives an up and down capability while the four-way allows up, down, right, left capability.

The angle section is made of stainless steel or brass rings and the angle wires are inserted through each ring. For two-way angulation, you have two wires and for four-way angulation you have four wires. These wires then go through the gearbox assembly which is inside the body portion of the instrument and by pulling one wire you will get an up reaction and the same theory is applied for down, right and left.

Angle of Articulation

The angle, in degrees, between the axis of the articulated section at its maximum deflection and the axis of the borescope tip at the undeflected condition.

Angle of Field

The greatest angle between two rays coming from the object through the objective lens into the optical system. Also known as Field of View.

Angle of View

The angle, in degrees, between the axis of the field of view and the axis of the articulating section. Also known as the Direction of View.

Articulation

The capability of a flexible borescope, in which the axis of the tip section, which contains the objective lens, can be remotely deflected in a plane with respect to the axis of the undeflected working section of the borescope.

Articulation/ Angulation Barrel, Lever, or Knob

Depending on the model purchased, the borescope may have a barrel, lever, or knob type angulation control. This feature is used to control the bending section. By moving the barrel, lever, or knob with the thumb in the direction of the “D” (down) or “U” (up) to its extremes, the bending section will angulate to the maximum degree noted in the individual model specifications. Borescopes equipped with four-way angulation are operated in the same manner. However, the inner knob controls the up and down movement while the outer knob controls the left and right movement.

Articulation Bend Radius

The radius, in inches or millimeters, to which the centerline of the articulating section of the borescope can be bent without causing damage to the borescope protective sheathing or enclosed fiber bundles.

Battery Operated Borescope

Originally designed specifically for the helicopter engine market, battery operated borescopes offer a portable feature to allow for easier, faster inspections in a variety of fields without power. Scopes can be connected to a light source or a battery pack. It can be utilized with video systems, video accessories, or can be attached to a digital camera.

Bending/Angle Section

This is the section of the insertion tube which responds to movement of the angulation knob or lever. The amount of movement in the bending section is measured in degrees and referred to as angulation.

Blending Borescope

A blending scope uses a flexible shaft and a rotary file to grind out foreign object damage on turbine blades. There are various kits available designed for use with specific engines.

Body Parts

The body portion of the fiberscope is made of cast aluminum. It has a cavity inside to assembly the gearbox assembly for the angle wires and is also the passageway for the light guide, image bundle and working channel. Angle knob and the angle lock knob assemblies are provided in the body. Since the channel is optional, the channel inlet is designed on the top side of the body.

Borescope

A fiberscope, also known as a “borescope,” is an optical instrument consisting of a fiber bundle with an objective lens at one end and an eyepiece at the other, for viewing objects not accessible to direct viewing. Generally used in areas where tortuous bends or curves necessitate a flexible device, a fiberscope consists of a coherent fiberoptic bundle, light guide fiber, and a flexible protective sheath enclosing wires for probe deflection. There are two types of borescopes available – rigid and flexible.

Camera Lock Pins

These pins are used to accommodate camera equipment which can be purchased through Machida. Other photographic equipment may be attached by means of an adapter ring also available through Machida.

Carrying Cases

Carrying cases are available to help transport equipment safely.

Channel Inlet

When the scope is equipped with a working channel, the inlet provides access for channel accessories to pass through the insertion tube and exit at the distal end.

Cleaning Brush

Should there be a need to clear away debris or dust from the area to be inspected, this accessory may be passed through the channel to prepare the area for inspection.

Comparison of Incoherent Light Guide and Coherent Image Bundle

The difference between the light guide and image bundle lies in how they are made. For an image bundle, the bundle of optical fibers must be coherent, that is all the fibers must be fastened together in a consistent pattern, so the arrangement of fibers is the same as the viewing end at the objective end.

For a light guide, a coherent arrangement is not necessary – it does not matter if the fibers are bunched together.

Crocodile Forceps

This tool may be used with a working channel borescope when retrieval of loose nuts, bolts, screws, etc. is necessary.

Depth of Focus

The region in front of and behind the focused distance within which objects still produce an image of acceptable sharpness for which objects still produce an image of acceptable sharpness for normal or corrected eyesight. In a fixed-focus, this parameter is often call the Depth of Field.

Distal Tip / End

This is the very end portion of the insertion tube where the image bundle, light guides, and channel (where applicable) terminate, which is made of steel. It has three or four holes inside. One hole is for the image bundle, two holes are for the light guides and the fourth hole is for the working channel.

Distal Tip / End

This is the very end portion of the insertion tube where the image bundle, light guides, and channel (where applicable) terminate, which is made of steel. It has three or four holes inside. One hole is for the image bundle, two holes are for the light guides and the fourth hole is for the working channel.

Diopter Adjustment Ring

This ring may be turned clockwise or counterclockwise to focus the eyepiece to the individual eye. Before attaching photographic equipment, turn the ring counterclockwise as far as it will go.

Diopter Correction

The adjustment of the eyepiece of an optical instrument to provide ocular accommodation of the eyesight differences of the individual observers.

Eyepiece

The end of the borescope probe containing the ocular lens system, which presents the virtual image of the object to the observer.

Eye Piece Lens Assembly

The Eye Piece Lens Assembly is also known as the “ocular.” Since the size of the bundle is very small, you would not be able to see through the fibers with the naked eye. The eyepiece magnifies the image fibers so the object you are viewing can be visible. The eyepiece also has a focus knob to adjust your eye focus. Machida eyepieces come with a camera lock pin to lock a 35mm or TV camera for photography purposes.

Fiber Optics

An array of flexible glass or plastic fibers which has the capability of transmitting light (random array) or an image (coherent array) axially through the fiber bundle.

Fiberscope with Channels and Tools

This scope is designed to retrieve foreign objects (FOD) while you do the inspection. Channel tube goes from top of the body to the distal end. You can pass the different types of the tools through the channel according to your application needs.

Flexible Borescope

A specialized optical instrument consisting of a system of lenses, prisms, coherent image guide and non-coherent light guide which allows inspection of cavities which cannot be inspected without any visual aid and which are accessible only along a curved path,

Focusing

The adjustment, usually at the eyepiece of the borescope, which changes the objective focal point.

FOD – Foreign Object Damage / Debris

Foreign Object Damage or Foreign Object Debris is a substance, debris or article alien to a vehicle or system that has potential to cause damage

FOD Prevention Fiberscope Kit

Designed for detection, retrieval, and prevention of foreign object damager in aircrafts, airframes, and engines.

Four-Prong Retriever

Also known as grasping forceps, may be used when retrieval of loose nuts, bolts, screws, etc. is necessary.

Guide Tubes

Depending on individual customer specifications, guide tubes are available in stainless steel or flexible tubing with distal articulation.

Image

A reproduction of an object produced by light rays. An image-forming optical system gathers a beam of light diverging from an object point and transforms it into a beam that converges toward another point, thus producing an image.

Image Bundle (Coherent Fiber Bundles)

This is the image guide or what transmits the image to the eye. Also known as the coherent fiber optic bundle, this is the main part of the fiberscope. The image bundle is made up of a coherent class fiber averaging 8,000 to 30,000 fibers out together in numerical order to convey the image from one end to the other. The resolution of the fiberscope depends on the size, quality, and configuration of the fibers. The fiber size goes from 6 microns to 10 microns. Smaller microns are better for greater resolution.

Insertion Tube

This is the long flexible portion of the instrument which is inserted into the object to be examined. Also known as the master spiral or working tube, it is made in a three layer piece. The first layer is made of stainless steel spiral. The second layer is steel mesh and the third one is made of polyurethane for extra protection and smoothness. Different outer diameter tubes have different configurations. One side of the insertion tube is glued with the angle section and the other side into the body area.

Knob Type

Machida’s largest borescope body with diameters from 8.0mm to 11.0mm, offering four-way angulation, and lengths of up to 20 feet.

Lens and Lens Assembly

Two type of lens go into the head set piece. One is the cover glass or windshield glass for protection. The second is the objective lens.

Light Guides (Incoherent Fiber Bundles)

Though the size, shape, and number of incoherent fiber bundles in a borescope may vary, their purpose remains the same – to transmit light to illuminate the viewing field. The light guides in Machida Borescopes are continuous from the very distal tip to the top of the light guide plug.

Light Guide Cable

This is the long cable portion of the scope which extends from the body of the control unit to the light guide plug, housing the light guide fibers. Most of the light guide is enclosed inside the insertion tube, but about five feet of the light guide that comes out from the body of the fiberscope needs protection. Either anaconda or rubber material are used to protect this piece which is called the “Light Guide Cable.” At the end of the cable you have a light guide jack to adapt to the light source.

Light Guide Plug

This section of the scope is located at the end of the light guide cable and will accept various sleeves to adapt to other manufacturers’ light sources.

Light Guide Plug Adapters

The light guide plug has been designed to insure ease of use. The standard Machida sleeve can easily be replaced with a separate optional sleeve to permit use of this instrument with other manufacturers’ light sources.

Light Sources

All Machida standard borescopes have built-in fiber optic light guides which call for reliable sources of cold white or other light. Light sources are a reliable source of light for effective illumination of the field of view and are essential to the use of a flexible borescope.

Magnet

Magnetic objects such as screws, nuts, bolts, etc. which may have fallen into the inspection area may be retrieved using this accessory.

Magnification

The ratio of the apparent size of the image of an object seen through an optical system to that of the size of the object viewed by the unaided eye. In the case of the borescope, the magnification if defined as the ratio of the quotient of the size of an object viewed by the unaided eye and the distance of the object is from the eye to the quotient of the apparent size of the object seen through the borescope and its distance from the borescope objective.

Mask

The mask is used on the image bundle to ensure a perfectly round image shape and also has a point at the 12 o’clock to indicate the up position.

MBS Series / Modulars

Machida’s smallest body type, these borescopes are available in diameters as small as 0.6mm to 2.0mm in diameter.

Objective Distance

The distance, in inches or centimeters, from the object to the objective lens.

Objective Lens

The optical lens that receives the light from the object and which forms the first image in the borescope.

Overall Length

The length, in inches or centimeters, of the borescope from the tip at the objective end to the end of the eyepiece, but not any removable eye shade.

Paints and Markings on the Fiberscope

Paints and markings help to avoid any damage to the borescope during critical inspections. From the markings, you can detect how far you are inside the area and the paint zone will indicate the critical bend area.

Pan View Fiberscope

Instead of a permanent or detachable side view attachment, a pan viewing scope has a built in prism that scans by means of remote control from the body portion of the instrument.

Photography Through a Borescope

With a camera adapter, you can adapt a 35mm SLR or TV Video Camera to a borescope and get a picture slide or videotape for your permanent record.

Relay Lenses

A series of optical inversion system mounted in the working length of the borescope, which transmits the image from the objective lens to the eyepiece.

Resolution

The ability of an optical system to distinguish individual points of an object at a given distance from the objective end of the system.

Retrieval Basket

This tool may be used when retrieval of loose nuts, bolts, screws, etc. is necessary.

Rigid Borescope

An optical instrument consisting of a system of lenses, mirrors/prisms and an illumination means, all assembled into a rigid tube, which allows inspection of cavities having straight line access.

Scraper

This accessory may be used for scraping away corrosion from the inspection area.

SD Card

A Secure Digital (SD) is a non-volatile memory card developed for use in portable devices.

Sheathing

The sheathing is the covering over the working section of a flexible borescope, which acts as a protection for the image bundle, the light guide and articulation control cables. The sheathing may be constructed of a plastic material, a spiral metal, a woven stainless steel mesh, or a combination thereof.

Side View Adapter

Detachable side view adapter permits changes in the direction of view and is available for borescope diameters 4.0mm to 11.0mm.

Side View Fiberscope

In certain areas, you would not be able to bend the distal end of the scope and would like to look at 90° or a right angle. For these instances, you would need a fiberscope with a prism or mirror. There are three types available. One with a permanent side view, the second with a detachable side view adapter, and a third that is a pan view scope.

Slim Lever Type

This is Machida’s most widely used borescope type. Diameters range from 1.5mm to 6.0mm and have angulation in two directions.

Snare

This accessory can be used when removal of a large foreign object is necessary.

Standard Series Flexible Borescopes

Machida has developed a line of Standard Flexible Borescopes with a number of important features normally found only in custom design instruments. The three standard models are small diameter modular (MBS), knob type, and slim lever. Each covers a multitude of needs and applications. Common to all three body types are specific controls and built-in features for distal tip angulation (articulation), light guides, eyepiece focusing, angle braking and photography, plus accommodations for various scope diameters and borescope lengths.

Sub-Assembly

Sub Assembly means an almost complete fiberscope except for the body and the eyepiece. Some companies keep different sub assemblies in stock in the case of repair as it helps to speed up the repair process.

Teflon Tube

This accessory is used for irrigation or dye penetrants. No fluids should enter the working channel unless the Teflon tube is inserted first. All Fluids should be injected through this Teflon tubing to avoid unnecessary repairs to the borescope.

Tip Length

The distance, in inches or millimeters, from the end of the probe to the intersection of the axis of the probe and the axis of the field of view.

Video Adapters

Video adapters adapt borescopes to digital or video cameras.

Videoscope

A flexible videoscope, video probe, or video borescope relays video images from the distal tip and focusable lens assembly back to the display via internal wiring. They use hard optical relay components to transfer the image from the tip to an eyepiece and fiberscopes use coherent image fiberoptics to relay the image to one’s eye through an eyepiece. The image quality of a videoscope is superior to a fiberscope and could be compared to that of a high-end video camera.

Video Systems

Video inspection systems allow multiple viewers to participate in an inspection while also permitting accurate, transferable documentation.

Visual Acuity

The numerical definition of the ability of an observer to perceive fine detail of an object. The average value for an observer having normal vision is approximately one minute of arc, or 8 lines per millimeter at 250 millimeters.

Working Channel Borescope “C” Version

Working channel borescopes also known as the FOD prevention fiberscope is designed for the detection, retrieval, and prevention of FOD in engines. It permits the passage of tools through the borescope control body to the distal tip for performing inspection and physical tasks at the examination site.

Working Channel Tools

Working channel tools permit passage of operating instruments through the borescope from the control body to the distal tip. The purpose is to perform physical tasks at the examination site. Such tasks may include probing, scraping, brushing, grasping, suction, spraying, irrigation, and material retrieval.

Working Diameter

The size of the cylindrical cross section of the working region of the rigid borescope probe, measured in thousandths of an inch or in millimeters. This parameter is also known as the Outside Diameter.

Working Length

The distance, in inches or in centimeters, from the center of the objective window of the borescope probe along the uniform circular cross section barrel region to the first enlarged area of the probe, generally the area where the fiber light source is coupled to the borescope.

 
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